What is Ransomware?

In an era dominated by technology, the threat of cybercrime looms large, with one of the most menacing forms being ransomware attacks.In an era dominated by technology, the threat of cybercrime looms large, with one of the most menacing forms being ransomware attacks.

Ransomware attacks not only compromise personal data but can cripple businesses and organisations.

In this ebook we delve into what ransomware attacks are, their impact, and most importantly, how you can protect yourself and your digital assets.

Did you know that 91% of all cyber attacks start with a phishing email? 

What is a Ransomware Attack?

Ransomware is a type of malicious software designed to deny access to a computer system or data until a sum of money, or “ransom,” is paid.
This form of cyber-attack encrypts the victim’s files, making them inaccessible. The attacker then demands payment in exchange for a decryption key.

How Do Ransomware Attacks Work?

Ransomware attacks typically follow a specific pattern, and understanding how they work can help individuals and organisations better protect themselves.
We uncover this in more detail across the next few pages.

How is Ransomware Delivered?

Ransomware is typically delivered in one of three ways, which we explore below.


Cybercriminals send seemingly legitimate emails containing malicious links or attachments. Once the user clicks on the link or downloads the attachment, the ransomware is executed.


Attackers can also distribute ransomware through malicious advertisements on websites. Clicking on these ads may trigger the download and installation of the malware.

Drive By Downloads

Visiting compromised websites can lead to automatic downloads and installations of ransomware without the user’s knowledge.

Executing The Attack

After the initial infection, the ransomware starts executing its code. It may begin by conducting reconnaissance on the system to identify valuable files.
Once identified, it encrypts these files using a strong encryption algorithm, rendering them inaccessible without the decryption key.

1. Ransom Note

Once the encryption process is complete, the ransomware displays a ransom note on the victim’s screen. This note informs the user that their files are encrypted and provides instructions on how to pay the ransom to receive the decryption key.

2. Deadline

The victim is typically given a deadline to pay the ransom. If the payment is made, the attacker may provide the decryption key. But, there’s no guarantee that paying the ransom will result in the recovery of files, and the attacker may demand more.

3. Propagation

In some cases, ransomware may include self-propagation mechanisms, enabling it to spread to other connected systems within a network. This can lead to a more widespread and severe impact.

If you fall victim to a ransomware attack, do not pay the ransom.

The Impact on SMEs

Ransomware attacks have far-reaching consequences that extend beyond the immediate loss of data or system access.

The impact of these attacks can be severe and multifaceted, affecting individuals, businesses, and even entire communities.

Here are some key aspects of the impact of ransomware attacks:

Ransom Payment

Ransom payments can be exorbitant, and even if paid, there’s no guarantee that the attacker will provide the decryption key.

Data Breach

Personal or sensitive information may be compromised, leading to privacy violations and potential legal consequences.

Downtime Cost

Businesses and organisations often face significant downtime during and after a ransomware attack. This downtime translates to lost productivity, revenue, and potential contractual penalties.

Recovery Costs

Recovering from a ransomware attack involves more than just paying the ransom. Organisations must invest ni rebuilding and securing their systems, conducting forensic analyses, and implementing enhanced cybersecurity measures. These recovery costs can be substantial.

Reputation Damage

The impact of a ransomware attack extends beyond immediate financial and operational consequences.
Businesses and organisations may suffer long-term damage to their reputation and trust among customers, partners, and stakeholders.

Legal Consequences

Data breaches resulting from ransomware attacks may trigger legal consequences and regulatory penalties. Organisations that fail to protect sensitive information may face legal action and fines under data protection laws.


Employee Training

Human error is a common entry point for ransomware. Train employees on recognising phishing emails, suspicious links, and the importance of not downloading unknown attachments.


Keep regular backups of your important files and data on offline or cloud storage. This ensures you can restore your system without paying the ransom.

Update Software

Ensure that your operating system and all software, especially security software, are up to date. Cybercriminals often exploit vulnerabilities in outdated systems.

Access Control

Make sure that your access control permissions are set up correctly and only people who need access to files have it.

Email Security

Set up and implement email security measures, such as spam filtering and monitoring.

Protect Your Business

Protecting your business from ransomware attacks is easier than you might think. Our range of cybersecurity services is designed to provide multiple layers of protection to your network, preventing unauthorised access at different entry points.

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